1. Environmental Pollution:
Pollution can be defined as harmful substances that exist in the Environment. These harmful substances are known as Pollutants. Pollutants can be created by human activities (urbanization, industrialization, mining, and exploration) and natural (volcanic ash, dust storms, forest fires, etc.). These pollutants damage the Environment.
Today Pollution must be taken seriously as it has a serious impact on the natural environment that includes the Atmosphere (Layers of gases/air like air, hydrogen, etc.), Hydrosphere (Water portion of the earth-like river, sea, glacier, puddle, lake, etc.), Lithosphere (Solid portion of the earth-like solid, volcano, rock, etc.) and Biosphere (Living portion of the earth-like tree, bee, grass, oceanic crust, etc).
Environmental Pollution is the biggest global problem and is common in both developed and developing countries.
2. Causes of Environmental Pollution:
Human’s activities like industrial waste, home-generated garbage, nuclear waste, toxic waste, contaminated materials, radioactive materials, atomic waste, pesticides – chemical poisons, acid rain, burning of fossil fuels, use of fossil fuels in power plants, transportation, construction of buildings, vehicles and heavy equipment, oil refineries, manufacturing, mining waste, plastic pollution as plastics don’t biodegrade quickly are the causes of environmental pollution that pollute the air, water, and land.
Major causes of Environmental Pollutions are:
- Water Pollution: Water pollution is caused by a variety of human activities such as industrial (toxic substances like harmful chemicals and sewage water), agricultural (laden with excess fertilizers and pesticides), and domestic (untreated or poorly treated wastewater and garbage). Rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, estuaries, and groundwater are polluted by crude oil and various petroleum products (Gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, motor and lubricating oils, jet fuel), fertilizers (nitrates and phosphates), organic solvents and chemicals (methyl, alcohols, acetone), metals and their compounds, pesticides/insecticides/herbicides, agriculture waste resulted from sewage and agricultural run-offs, discharge of pollutants from diffused sources or from a larger area such as runoff from agricultural fields, grazing lands, construction sites, abandoned mines and pits, roads and streets, etc. Other sources of water pollution are:
- Urban run-off of untreated or poorly treated wastewater and garbage.
- Groundwater gets polluted when contaminants from pesticides and fertilizers to waste leach from landfills.
- Agricultural practices such as the application of large amounts of fertilizers and pesticides, animal feeding operations, etc.
- Sewage and wastewater come from indoor (sinks, showers, toilets) and outdoor activities like commercial, industrial, agriculture.
- Metals like lead, zinc, arsenic, copper, mercury, and cadmium in industrial wastewaters adversely affect humans and other animals.
- Oil pollution of the sea occurs from leakage from ships, oil tankers, rigs, and pipelines. Accidents of oil tankers spill large quantities of oil in seas which kills marine birds and adversely affects other marine life and beaches.
- Marine debris (ocean pollution) occurs when substances used or spread by humans, such as industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, excess carbon dioxide or invasive organisms enter the ocean and cause harmful effects there. Most input comes from land, rivers, or sewage.
- Air Pollution: Air Pollution may be defined as the presence of undesirable solid, liquid, or gaseous particles including noise and radioactive radiation in the atmosphere that are harmful to human health and other living beings. The ever-increasing use of fossil fuels in power plants, industries, transportation, mining, construction of buildings, stone quarries had led to air pollution. Carbon oxides (CO, CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SO2), hydrocarbons, and suspended particular matter (SPM) are the five primary pollutants that together contribute about 90% of global air pollution.
- Carbon monooxide (CO, CO2) is a colorless, toxic gas produced when organic materials like natural gas, coal or wood are incompletely burnt. Vehicular exhausts are the singular largest source of carbon monoxide. Sulfur oxides are produced when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are burnt.
- Sulfur oxides (SO2), colorless, bad-smelling, toxic gas that can be detected by taste and smell. It is emitted by the burning of fossil fuels — coal, oil, and diesel — or other materials that contain sulfur. Other sources include power plants, metals processing, smelting facilities, and vehicles. Diesel vehicles and equipment are the major sources of SO2.
- Nitrogen oxides (NO &NO2) are found in vehicular exhausts. Nitrogen oxides are significant, as they are involved in the production of secondary air pollutants such as ozone.
- Hydrocarbons are a group of compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms. They either evaporate from fuel supplies or are remnants of fuel that did not burn completely.
- SPM (Suspended Particular Matter) includes mattel elements, chemicals, particulate matter (a mixture of particles and droplets in the air, consisting of a variety of components such as organic compounds, metals, acids, soil, and dust), iron, manganese oxides, quartz, feldspars, hydrous aluminum silicate, etc.
- Lead is a major air pollutant that remains largely unmonitored and is emitted by vehicles. Pollutants are also found indoors from infiltration of polluted outside air and from various chemicals used or produced inside buildings. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution are equally harmful.
- Soil/Land Pollution: Soil pollution is defined as the presence of toxic chemicals in soil, in high enough concentrations which adversely affect the quality of soil or its fertility i.e. risk to human health and the ecosystem. Generally, polluted water also pollutes the soil. Solid waste is a mixture of plastics, cloth, glass, metal and organic matter, mining activities, chemical waste dumping, sewage, sewage sludge, building debris, generated from households (garbage, wastewater), agriculture (fertilizers and pesticides), and industrial (fly ash, chemical residues, acids, metallic and nuclear wastes) establishments, etc. Acid rain and dry deposition of pollutants on the land surface also contribute to soil pollution.
- Noise Pollution: Noise pollution or sound pollution is present on the land and under the sea. Noise pollution can be referred to any unwanted sound or disturbing sound that affects the health of humans and other living beings or organisms. Sound is measured in decibels (dB).
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sounds that reach more than 70 dB or higher can harm a person’s ears.
- Noise pollution comes from the construction sites (mining, construction of buildings), events (wedding, birthday party, official parties, etc.), transportation (increased no of vehicles), and, industrialization (use of heavy machinery like generators, mills, exhaust fans, etc.), etc.
- Underwater noise comes from ships, oil drills, sonar devices, and seismic tests, etc. Whales and dolphins are particularly impacted by noise pollution.
- Solid Waste Pollution: Wastes are materials that are not needed and not used economically with further processing. Solid waste can be categorized as municipal waste, industrial waste, hazardous waste, and e-waste.
- Municipal waste is commonly known as trash or garbage generated from the domestic activities of human beings. The composition of municipal solid waste includes food waste, yard waste/green waste, plastic containers, product packaging materials, etc.
- Industrial waste arises from industrial activities like improper disposal of solid materials, biological wastes, flammable wastes, scrap metals, trash, oil, solvents, chemicals, waste generated during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations, etc.
- Hazardous wastes are wastes with properties that make them dangerous or potentially harmful to human health, plants, animals, or marine lives. Hazardous waste can be produced from products of the manufacturing process, discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides, petroleum refineries, transportation, coke-ovens, blast furnace sludges, scrubbing sludges, and biological waste generating laboratories, thermal and nuclear power plants, and nuclear reactors.
- E-waste or electronic waste describes electrical or electronic devices. Recently, solid wastes are disposed of outside the city or village limit where they are burnt or compacted which causes serious health problems in humans and other organisms and has a negative impact on the environment.
- Other causes of solid waste pollution are overpopulation, urbanization (people have the habit of using varieties of commodities and discarding them very crudely like dumping and burning, etc.), affluence (in societies, per capital consumption is very high so people discarded many items regularly, which increases too much solid waste), technology (packaging materials made from plastic and non-biodegradable, are largely responsible for causing solid waste pollution), etc. So, solid waste can pollute the air, water, and soil, and cause health hazards, due to improper handling and transportation.
- Radiation Pollution: Radiation is an essential energy that travels and spreads out as it goes. It can be referred to as electromagnetic radiation includes visible light, radio waves, microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet lights, X-rays, and gamma-rays. “Radiation pollution can be defined as the increase in the natural radiation levels caused by human activities.”
- It can be the release of radioactive substances (uranium, thorium, radon, etc.) into the environment during nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapon production and decommissioning, mining of radioactive ores, handling and disposal of radioactive waste, and accidents at nuclear power plants, use of radiation in medicine (e.g. X-rays) and research.
- Other sources that generate unnoticed low-level radiation pollution are mobile phones, cell phone towers, cordless phones, TVs, computers, microwave ovens, broadcast antennas, military and aviation radars, satellites, wireless internet, etc.
- Radioactive materials can be solids, liquids, or gases, and thus the radiation pollution may spread and affect all three media. Air is the fastest way of radiation pollution.
- Thermal Pollution: Thermal Pollution is when an industry takes water from natural sources and either cools it down or heats it up. They then eject that water back into the natural resource, which changes the oxygen levels and can have disastrous effects on local ecosystems and communities. In short, “Thermal pollution is the discharge of heated water into bodies of water.” The main contributors to thermal heat pollution are thermal or nuclear power plants; industrial effluents such as petroleum refineries, pulp and paper mills, chemical plants, steel mills, and smelters; sewage effluents; and biochemical activity. The ambient water temperature is the most vital requirement for the survival of aquatic fauna and flora.
3. Impact of Environmental Pollution:
- Water Pollution: Impact of water pollution are:
- Oil pollution of the sea occurs from leakage from ships, oil tankers, rigs, and pipelines. Accidents of oil tankers spill large quantities of oil in seas which kills marine birds and adversely affects other marine life and beaches.
- Water pollution depletes aquatic ecosystems and triggers the unbridled proliferation of phytoplankton (all the marine lives or plants, which keep flowing in water by water waves or streams) in lakes.
- Critical and grievous diseases caused by water pollution are cholera (which leads to acute diarrhea, dehydration, and it can sometimes cause death), diarrhea, typhoid, amoebiasis (infecting the large intestine, or liver), dysentery (diarrhea with blood and mucus, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain), schistosomiasis (infections and damage to the intestines, bladder and the liver), cancer, hepatitis (affects the liver), lead poisoning (life-threatening diseases like serious organ damage, especially to the kidneys and the nervous system), polio, trachoma (eye infection), etc.
- Air pollution: Effects of air pollution are:
- It kills an estimated 7 million people worldwide every year.
- Respiratory and heart problems, child health problems, breathing problems, global warming, acid rain, eutrophication, effects on wildlife, depletion of the ozone layer, causes due to air pollution.
- Acid rain is caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants or carbon dioxide).
- When gaseous pollutants enter the plants via leaf pores, leads to damage from diseases, pests, drought, and frost, damages the leaves of crop plants, interferes with photosynthesis and plant growth, reduces nutrient uptake, and causes leaves to turn yellow, etc.
- Soil/Land Pollution: Disastrous impacts of soil/land pollution are:
- When harmful substances from industrial processes, chemicals are improperly disposed of on the land or in illegal landfills or storage, the chemicals, and other substances could end up in the groundwater system, called leaching. It can happen on farms, industrial sites, and landfills that affect the health of animals, plants and also humans.
- The effects of land pollution are very hazardous and can lead to the loss of ecosystems.
- Drinking water is highly affected by land pollution. Nearly 50% of the world’s population does not have access to safe drinking water, and each year water-based diseases cause up to 10 million deaths.
- Agricultural chemicals especially fertilizers in the runoff water from fields can cause eutrophication in water bodies, while pesticides are highly toxic chemicals, affects humans and other animals adversely causing respiratory problems, cancer, and death.
- Noise Pollution: The impact of noise pollution on human health includes hypertension, headache, hearing loss, sleeping disorder, cardiovascular issues, etc.
- Solid Waste Pollution: Impact of solid waste pollution are:
- Organic solid wastes emit obnoxious odors on their decomposition and make the environment polluted.
- Rats dwelling with infectious solid wastes may spread diseases like plague, salmonellosis, trichinosis, endemic typhus, etc.
- E-waste is especially dangerous during the summer months because when electronic waste gets heated, toxic chemicals are released into the air, further damaging the already volatile atmosphere. Specifically, lead, when released into the environment, can cause damage to human blood, kidneys, as well as central and peripheral nervous systems.
- Water supply gets contaminated with pathogens present in solid wastes that may result in cholera, jaundice, hepatitis, gastroenteric diseases, etc.
- The land, when contaminated with toxic chemicals and pesticides, leads to potentially fatal problems like skin cancer and human respiratory ailments in particular. Globally, 9500 people are diagnosed with skin cancer every day.
- Radiation Pollution: Impact of radiation pollution are:
- The high amount of radiation generates almost immediately chronic diseases, cancer, or even sudden death.
- Thermal Pollution: The effect of thermal pollution includes:
- Water is used as a cooling agent in power, manufacturing, and industrial plants by releasing heated water to rivers, oceans that raise the water temperature sharply, which results, oxygen levels are altered in the water that degrade the quality and longevity of life in wildlife that lives underwater.
- Decreasing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, which aquatic life requires, damage to larvae and eggs of fish in rivers, killing off some species of fish and macroinvertebrates that have limited tolerance for temperature change, and migration of living entities from their environment.
- Trees and plants prevent sunlight from falling directly on lakes, ponds, or rivers. When “Deforestation” takes place, these water bodies are directly exposed to sunlight, thus absorbing more heat and raising their temperature which has a negative impact on marine lives.
- Natural causes like volcanoes, geothermal vents, and hot springs under the oceans and seas can trigger warm lava to raise the temperature of water bodies. Lightening can also introduce a massive amount of heat into the oceans.
- Domestic sewage is often discharged into rivers, lakes, canals, or streams without treating the waste. The temperature of municipal water sewage is normally higher than receiving water, results, the dissolved oxygen (DO) decreases, and the demand for oxygen increases, causing anaerobic conditions.
- Retention ponds can be another source of thermal shock because the water bodies that are relatively small and shallow can absorb quite a bit of heat energy from the sun. When that water is pumped directly into a river, lake, or bay, it causes a significant temperature increase.
- Common Effects of environmental pollution: Common effects are:
- Waste products when burnt like plastic and rubber pollute the atmosphere with noxious fumes.
- Waterborne plastic poses a serious threat to fish, seabirds, marine reptiles, and marine mammals.
- Deforestation is also the main cause of the higher concentrations of greenhouse gases i.e. global warming in the atmosphere.
- In developing countries, environmental pollution is more serious due to overpopulation and uncontrolled urbanization along with the development of industrialization. This leads to poor air, water, and soil quality, especially in countries with social disparities and a lack of information on sustainable management of the environment. The use of fuels such as wood fuel or solid fuel for domestic needs due to low incomes exposes people to bad-quality, polluted air, water, and soil at home. It is of note that three billion people around the world are using the above sources of energy for their daily heating and cooking needs which leads to serious pollution.
- Some common diseases are respiratory infections, heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, Irritation in the eyes and lungs, etc causes due to environmental pollution.
- According to WHO (World Health Organization), every year environmental pollution is responsible for millions of death around the globe.
4. Environmental Pollution Prevention:
Environmental Pollution Prevention or Environmental P2 measures are provided below:
- Water Pollution Prevention (P2): Staggering ways of Water P2 involves:
- Try to avoid using too many plastics as it’s very difficult to break down once produced.
- Plastic waste is not only damaging the water when broken but is also hazardous for the life of marine, animals, and humans.
- Always carry cloth bags in place of plastic bags for groceries, shopping, etc.
- Use solar power in place of hydropower, or hydroelectric power to generate electricity.
- Switch off electric switches of your laptops, mixers, fan, tv, press, mobile chargers, and other electric equipment items when you don’t use them or if they are fully charged.
- Kitchen sinks should not be used for discarding fats and oils. These should instead be collected in a container and disposed of at a proper facility as solid waste.
- Medicines in any form are dangerous to the water system, both for the wildlife living and the creatures that drink from them. These should always be disposed of safely in special facilities, which differ from product to product.
- Ensuring that dishwashing and laundry are both undertaken only when you have a full load is a good way of conserving water.
- Items like toilet tissues are specially designed to break down in the pipes, while other common household items like candy wrappers, rags, and even dental floss are not. This means that when they get flushed, they simply pollute the system. So, dispose of these in wastebaskets.
- Try also to avoid making use of herbicides and pesticides while gardening as these chemicals spread a long way and cause a lot of pollution.
- Always keep your vehicles and other mechanical devices in good working order. “Changing oil when necessary is essential not only for the maintenance of your vehicles’ engine and moving part, but also the conservation of the environment.” When oil is moved about in an engine, it breaks down into component parts which are often harmful and dangerous to wildlife and humans.
- “Join organizations dedicated to protecting the environment with humans, plants, animals, and marine lives. If you can.” Keeping yourself informed and involved with conservation efforts is a great way to do your part for the environment.
- If you cannot join an organization for whatever reason, consider donating to some. “Even small donations, where requested, can help immensely, so you can do your bit even if it’s only a little at a time.” Before donating must check the organization is real or fake.
- “Raise your voice to companies and politicians who are not doing enough to protect the water.” Write emails and letters, and make use of social networks to highlight the problems caused by inaction and poor care.
- “Help others when called upon for help.” When others want to get involved with protecting the waterways or environment, you should offer your help to aid them to achieve the goal.
- If you notice that chemicals and pollutants are being spilled or poured into a body of water, do not simply let it slide. “Contact the local water authority to have them sort it out.”
- If you notice litter in your local water body, do your best to clean it up. For a greater impact, get a whole group together to go out and clean up the water.
- Disposing of waste products such as oil and transmission fluid into drains or sewers is terribly harmful to the environment. Since the sewers empty directly into the rivers and spread pollution. “Automotive fluids must be disposed of at a processing plant with special disposal units set up.”
- Air Pollution Prevention (P2): Air P2 solution involves:
- Prefer the public mode of transportation to reduce pollution. You can also try carpooling.
- Better household practices like use gas logs in place of wooden stoves. Also, avoid fire to garbage, dry leaves, wood, plastics, or other materials.
- To produce electricity, a large number of fossil fuels are burnt. So, switch off fans, lights, microwaves, etc to save the environment from degradation and conserve energy.
- Don’t throw away items that are of no use to you. Instead, reuse them for other purposes.
- Use clean energy technologies like solar, wind, or geothermal. Governments of various countries grant the consumers to use of solar panels.
- Use energy-efficient devices like CFL lights as they consume less electricity, live longer with low electricity bills, and helps to reduce pollution than others.
- Soil/Land Pollution Prevention (P2): Soil P2 techniques on a global scale include:
- Reforestation (planting more trees) is the best way to reduce soil pollution. It is also effective for floods.
- Use biofertilizers, biological methods, and manures in place of chemical fertilizers or pesticides for farming.
- Bio-pesticides should be used in place of toxic chemical pesticides. Similarly, organic or natural fertilizers should be used in place of synthesized chemical fertilizers. Ex: Organic wastes in animal dung may be used to prepare compost manure instead of throwing them wastefully and polluting the soil.
- Solid waste should be treated and discarded properly. Excess waste by human cause a disposal problem. So, they should be treated before dumping them to reduce the hazardous levels.
- Go with biodegradable products because if they’re thrown away, they’ll break down naturally and not pollute the soil with toxic chemicals.
- People awareness is necessary through formal or informal public awareness programs on health hazardous and environmental education with participating in programs like “Clean Garbage on Gangas”.
- Ban on toxic chemicals and pesticides like DDT, BHC, etc which are fatal to plants and animals. Nuclear explosions and improper disposal of radioactive wastes should also be banned.
- The technique of extraction and separation method can be applied in the removal of heavy metals in the soil, such as arsenic, copper, lead, cadmium, etc. In this method, extracting agent (an organic solvent) is mixed with the contaminated soil.
- Use chemical method, in which soil is brought into contact with the right chemical through a chemical process of restoring the natural chemical balance in the soil. It is done regularly to ensure that the detoxification process is complete.
- Noise Pollution Prevention (P2): Tips for Noise P2 are:
- Select your residential area far away from highways or heavy traffic roads.
- Shut the door when using noisy machines.
- Honking should be banned in public places like offices, schools, colleges, hospitals, etc.
- Soundproof systems should be installed in hospitals, theatres, industrial or commercial buildings, etc.
- Don’t slam your car doors or the doors of your house.
- Keep the volume of TVs, musical instruments, smartphones, music systems under reasonable limits.
- Use your vehicle’s horn for valid reasons.
- Maintain a level of around 35 dB in your bedroom at night and around 40 dB in your house during the day.
- Solid Waste Pollution Prevention (P2): Solid Waste P2 includes:
- Disposal should be done through sanitary landfills or through incineration.
- Composting or biodegradable (bacterial decomposition of organic components of municipal waste).
- Making last longer products.
- Conversion from heavy packaging to lighter ones.
- Use fewer materials in making products.
- Produce new products of the same type through primary recycling.
- Secondary recycling with waste-producing different products.
- Recover glass, aluminum, iron, paper for sale.
- Recycle or burn remaining waste to generate heat, electricity.
- Radiation Pollution Prevention (P2): Radiation P2 techniques include:
- Always wear protective sunscreen and avoid staying in direct sun for too long as UV light can penetrate through windows and thus reach us in cars, homes, offices, etc.
- Always evaluate the risk of radiation for your home especially if you live close to a nuclear facility, mining site, or coal power plant.
- It’s recommended to check your home for Radon level.
- If you work or used to work with radioactive materials, or mining sites, you should be regularly checked for any possible radiation health effects as radiation pollution may be a risk in such areas.
- The coal ash (from coal power plants) may be more radioactive than nuclear waste and thus may pose serious health risks due to the presence of radioactive materials such as thorium and uranium in natural coal, they are concentrated (about 10 times) when coal is burnt.
- Thermal Pollution Prevention (P2): Thermal P2 solution includes:
- Industrially water can be recycled for domestic use or industrial heating that the problem of thermal pollution can be migrated.
- Thermal power (rejected heat) of power plants can be used for industrial and space heating, biological applications like soil warming, fish culture, livestock shelters, and heating greenhouse, etc.
- Cooling ponds or reservoirs are the simplest and cheapest methods of controlling thermal discharges. In cooling ponds, heated effluents on the surface of water maximize the dissipation of heat to the atmosphere and minimize the area and volume of water.
After using water from water sources for cooling purposes, it is subsequently returned to the water body after passing through the condenser, which is termed the cooling process. Therefore, “Cooling Towers” are designed to control the temperature of water to make the cooling process more effective. Cooling towers are mainly used to dissipate the recovered waste heat to eliminate the problems of thermal pollution.
- Artificial lakes are man-made water bodies that offer a possible alternative. The heated effluents may be discharged into the lake at one end, and the water may be withdrawn from the other end for cooling
In our globalized world, environmental threats require effective responses that promote peace, justice, development, and the fulfillment of environmental and human rights. Environmental rights and governance in countries include:
- Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.
- Integrate climate change measures into international policies, strategies, and planning.
- Improve education, awareness-raising, and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning.
- To ensure sustainable consumption and production practices necessarily entails respecting the biophysical boundaries of the planet and to reduce current global consumption rates in order to fit with the biophysical capacity to produce ecosystem services and benefits.
- Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
- In India, The Environmental Protection Act was enacted in 1986.
- Environmental movements in India are:
- National Mission for Clean Ganga, known as Namami Gange Programme is an Integrated Conservation Mission, launched by Prime Minister of India: Mr. Narendra Modi and approved as ‘Flagship Programme’ by the Union Government in June 2014 with a budget outlay of Rs. 20,000 crore to accomplish the twin objectives of effective abatement of pollution, conservation, and rejuvenation of National River Ganga, supported by saints and popular social activists across the Indian states Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar.
- Chipko Movement or the Chipko Andolan was perhaps one of the first ecological movements which saw the participation of marginalized and tribal communities in forest conservation.
- Starting as Forest Satyagraha in the 1930s in Uttar Pradesh (now Uttarakhand), the movement has spread to many other States in India like Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Karnataka by 1980s.
- Save the Narmada Movement (Narmada Bachao Andolan, NBA) is the people’s movement launched against the construction of huge dams on the river Narmada in India.
- Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishad is a People’s Science Movement (PSM) of Kerala, India. Founded in 1962 with the slogan “Science for Social Revolution” It published a socio-political report on the ecological, economic, and social impacts of the hydroelectric project proposed in the Silent Valley.
6. Environmental Career Prospects:
Today’s in-demand green jobs or environmental friendly jobs are: 1) Solar Photovoltaic Installers, 2) Wind Turbine Technicians, 3) Civil Engineers, 4) Mechanical Engineers, 5) Environmental Scientist and Specialist, 6) Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, 7) Environmental Science Teacher, 8) Environmental Engineering Technicians, 9) Environmental Engineers, 10) Environmental Lawyer, 11) Environmental Chemist, 12) Environmental Manager, 13) Environmental Health Officer, 14) Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists, 15) Conservation Scientists and Foresters, 16) Agricultural and Food Scientists, 17) Agricultural Engineers, 18) Atmospheric Scientists, 19) Hydrologists, 20) Geoscientists, 21) Minerals surveyor, 22) Marine Biologist, 23) Wildlife Biologist, 24) Microbiologist, 25) Nature Conservation Officer, 26) Waste Management Officer, 27) Recycling Officer, 28) Water Qulaity Scientist, 29) Transport Planner, 30) Jump to other career options in Environmental Science, 31) Other deatailed Green jobs
7. Courses for Environmental Protection:
Most entry-level jobs require a bachelor’s degree in environmental science, or related fields such as microbiology, chemistry, physics, geosciences, or engineering. Careers in Environmental science vary from work from home to travel around the world on annual basis. Environmental courses are:
- Certificate Courses: 1) Certificate in Environmental Science (CES), 2) Certificate Courses in Environmental Science
- Diploma Courses: 1) Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Environmental Science, 2) Bachelor of Environmental Management, 3) Bachelor of Science in Environmental Science & Water Management
- Master Courses: 1) Master of Philosophy in Environmental Sciences, 2) Post Graduate Diploma in Environment, 3) Master of Science (M.Sc) in Environmental Management
- Ph.D Courses: 1) Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science, 2) Doctor of Philosophy in Earth Science, 3) PH.D. in Earth Systems and Built Environments, 4) Ph.D. in Applied Geology, 5) Ph.D. in Geosciences – Geography, 6) Ph.D. in Marine Affairs, 7) PhD in Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, 8) PhD in Petroleum Geoscience, 9) Ph.D. in Physics, Earth and Materials Sciences, 10) PhD in Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, 11) PhD in Earth Sciences & Environmental Sustainability, 12) Ph.D. in Biological and Agricultural Engineering, etc.
8. Colleges for Environmental Studies
- Centre for Environmental Studies
- Teri School of Advanced Studies
- Centre for Environmnet Education
- Southern New Hampshire University
- Department of Earth Science, IIT, Mumbai
- Centre for Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science
- Centre for Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS)
9. International Organizations for Environmentalism as Career
Environemental Organisations are:
- World Nature Organisation (WNO)
- International Union for Conservation of Nature
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Earth System Governance Project (ESGP)
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
- International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
- Convention on Biological Diversity
- Global Environment Facility (GEF)
- UN Environment Programme
- US Forest Service
- US Geological Survey
- Tetra Tech
- Environmental Resource Management
- United Nations Development Programme
- The Nature Conservancy
- World Wildlife Fund
- Sierra Club
- Light for the World
10. Indian Government Organizations for Environmentalism as Career
Indian government organizations for Environmental Protections are:
- Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
- National Biodiversity Authority
- National Wildlife Federation
- National Audubon Society
- National Park Service
- Environmentalist Foundation of India (EFI)
11. Indian NGO’s for Environmentalism as Career
Indian NGO’s to save Environment are:
- Nature Conservation Foundation
- Tropical Research & Development Centre (TRDC)
- Chintan (Environmental Research and Action Group)
- Sankalptaru Foundation
- IORA Ecological Solutions
- Accesslife Aassistance Foundation
- Elixir Foundation